Cols., XI, p. 50; Hinsdale, Old Northwest, p. 121; Burke, “Oration on Conciliation,” Works (1872 ed. Daily Life on the Frontier. The early settlers were tied to the coast by the need of salt, without which they could not preserve their meats or live in comfort. For example, he may study the origin of our land policies in the colonial land policy; he may see how the system grew by adapting the statutes to the customs of the successive frontiers. Finally, there were the Native Americans. People traveled by wagon trains before the railroads were completed, and they traveled regularly by horseback. The Native Americans resisted and the settlers and the government fought back. Over internal improvements occurred great debates, in which grave constitutional questions were discussed. His son was among the earliest trappers in the passes of the Rocky Mountains, and his party are said to have been the first to camp on the present site of Denver. But several developments in the 1870s changed the prospects for homesteaders.  The King attempted to arrest the advance by his proclamation of 1763, forbidding settlements beyond the sources of the rivers flowing into the Atlantic; but in vain. 45. Many a State that now declines any connection with the tenets of the Populists, itself adhered to such ideas in an earlier stage of the development of the State. But what constitutional historian has made any adequate attempt to interpret political facts by the light of these social areas and changes?. The frontier region of the time lay along the Great Lakes, where Astor’s American Fur Company operated in the Indian trade, and beyond the Mississippi, where Indian traders extended their activity even to the Rocky Mountains; Florida also furnished frontier conditions. Frontier: located at or near a border.  The West in the war of 1812 repeated the phenomenon on the frontier of that day, while the speculation and wild-cat banking of the period of the crisis of 1837 occurred on the new frontier belt of the next tier of States. Much has been written about the frontier from the point of view of border warfare and the chase, but as a field for the serious study of the economist and the historian it has been neglected. Western frontier life, folklore and reality of the lives of the men and women who participated in the last phase of the settlement of the U.S. frontier. ; Benton, Abridgment of Debates, VII, p, 397. 21. It was this nationalizing tendency of the West that transformed the democracy of Jefferson into the national republicanism of Monroe and the democracy of Andrew Jackson. There is not tabula rasa. Thence he passed to the frontier of Missouri, where his settlement was long a landmark on the frontier. In short, it was a region mediating between New England and the South, and the East and the West. Another wave rolls on. The Crow, who would be the neighbors of FRONTIER HOUSE participants, are a relatively "new" tribe, first entering the area in the 1600s as a part of the Hidatsa tribe. Familiarity information: FRONTIER used as a noun is uncommon. The Old Dominion has long been celebrated for producing great orators; the ablest metaphysicians in policy; men that can split hairs in all abstruse questions of political economy. But Lewis and Clarke were the first to explore the route from the Missouri to the Columbia. The Middle region, entered by New York harbor, was an open door to all Europe. It is evident that the farming frontier of the Mississippi Valley presents different conditions from the mining frontier of the Rocky Mountains. , “No subject,” said Henry Clay, “which has presented itself to the present, or perhaps any preceding, Congress, is of greater magnitude than that of the public lands.” When we consider the far-reaching effects of the Government’s land policy upon political, economic, and social aspects of American life, we are disposed to agree with him. 51. Some were miners from England or Wales. Buffalo Bill Cody began touring with his Wild West Show in 1883. Washington desired to settle a State at a time in the Northwest; Jefferson would reserve from settlement the territory of his Louisiana purchase north of the thirty-second parallel, in order to offer it to the Indians in exchange for their settlements east of the Mississippi. Broadcloths, silks, leghorns, crapes, and all the refinements, luxuries, elegancies, frivolities, and fashions are in vogue. Darby, Emigrants’ Guide, pp. Compare Thorpe, in Annals American Academy of Political and Social Science, September, 1891; Bryce, American Commonwealth (1888), II, p. 689. Particularly in eastern States this page is a palimpsest. See the admirable monograph by Prof. H. B. Adams, Maryland’s Influence on the Land Cessions; and also President Welling, in Papers American Historical Association, III, p. 411. It was the greatest of frontiersmen who declared: “I believe this Government can not endure permanently half slave and half free. 2. The transition appears to become marked at the close of the war of 1812, a period when interest centered upon the development of the West, and the West was noted for restless energy. ... 1910s Mt. 10. Among the important centers of attraction may be mentioned the following: fertile and favorably situated soils, salt springs, mines, and army posts. As successive terminal moraines result from successive glaciations, so each frontier leaves its traces behind it, and when it becomes a settled area the region still partakes of the frontier characteristics. The rebels control the frontier and the surrounding area. Stagecoaches ran over uneven ground and passengers sat on rough wooden benches for long, dusty, cold rides during which they had often to stay alert for Native Americans or bandits. The effects of the struggle of the landed and the landless States, and of the ordinance of 1787, need no discussion. XV, 144; Logan, History of Upper South Carolina. [Burke], European Settlements, etc. What is true for New England is, as would be expected, even plainer for the rest of the colonies. The frontier army post, serving to protect the settlers from the Indians, has also acted as a wedge to open the Indian country, and has been a nucleus for settlement. For a moment, at the frontier, the bonds of custom are broken and unrestraint is triumphant. It begins with the Indian and the hunter; it goes on to tell of the disintegration of savagery by the entrance of the trader, the pathfinder of civilization; we read the annals of the pastoral stage in ranch life; the exploitation of the soil by the raising of unrotated crops of corn and wheat in sparsely settled farming communities; the intensive culture of the denser farm settlement; and finally the manufacturing organization with city and factory system. We have the complex European life sharply precipitated by the wilderness into the simplicity of primitive conditions. A man's word was more binding than any written law. of People of U. S., I, pp. It admired tough and independent characters, gamblers who took chances and won, people who knew how to fight for and keep what was theirs. But it was not merely in legislative action that the frontier worked against the sectionalism of the coast. Guthrie. The “American Frontier,” began with the first days of European settlement on the Atlantic coast and the eastern rivers. New methods of dry farming were invented and windmills were developed to draw water from underground. In this connection may be mentioned the importance of the frontier, from that day to this, as a military training school, keeping alive the power of resistance to aggression, and developing the stalwart and rugged qualities of the frontiersman. That coarseness and strength combined with acuteness and inquisitiveness; that practical, inventive turn of mind, quick to find expedients; that masterful grasp of material things, lacking in the artistic but powerful to effect great ends; that restless, nervous energy; that dominant individualism, working for good and for evil, and withal that buoyancy and exuberance which comes with freedom—these are traits of the frontier, or traits called out elsewhere because of the existence of the frontier. But the most important effect of the frontier has been in the promotion of democracy here and in Europe. The men of the frontier had closer resemblances to the Middle region than to either of the other sections. The tax-gatherer is viewed as a representative of oppression. In the case of most nations, however, the development has occurred in a limited area; and if the nation has expanded, it has met other growing peoples whom it has conquered. Other sections sent their missionaries; but the real struggle was between sects. Before long he has gone to planting Indian corn and plowing with a sharp stick; he shouts the war cry and takes the scalp in orthodox Indian fashion. Even a cursory reading of the plan proposed by the congress reveals the importance of the frontier. In the course of the seventeenth century the frontier was advanced up the Atlantic river courses, just beyond the “fall line,” and the tidewater region became the settled area. Governor Spottswood of Virginia writes in 1717, “The inhabitants of our frontiers are composed generally of such as have been transported hither as servants, and, being out of their time, settle themselves where laud is to be taken up and that will produce the necessarys of life with little labour.”36 Very generally these redemptioners were of non-English stock. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. 7. A frontieris a border with official points for people to cross, often with guards. Taking flocks or furs and ginseng root, the early settlers sent their pack trains after seeding time each year to the coast. With the appeal to the conscience of New England, he adds appeals to her fears lest other religious sects anticipate her own. The question is elaborated further in, for example, existential philosophy and phenomenology. Thus the demand for land and the love of wilderness freedom drew the frontier ever onward. It was the frontier of Europe in a very real sense. [McCrady] Eminent and Representative Men of the Carolinas, I, p.43; Calhoun’s Works, I, pp. Too exclusive attention has been paid by institutional students to the Germanic origins, too little to the American factors. Most were farmers, skilled and unskilled laborers, miners and prospectors, and, after the Civil War, former soldiers all looking for a better life. So long as free land exists, the opportunity for a competency exists, and economic power secures political power. IV; Parkman, Oregon Trail; Hall, The West (Cincinnati, 1848); Pierce, Incidents of Western Travel; Murray, Travels in North America; Lloyd, Steamboat Directory (Cincinnati, 1856); “Forty Days in a Western Hotel” (Chicago), in Putnam’s Magazine, December, 1894; Mackay, The Western World, II, ch. A log cabin, and, occasionally, a stable and corn-crib, and a field of a dozen acres, the timber girdled or “deadened,” and fenced, are enough for his occupancy. The first frontier had to meet its Indian question, its question of the disposition of the public domain, of the means of intercourse with older settlements, of the extension of political organization, of religious and educational activity. The process has gone on from the early days to our own.  The Germans in New York pushed the frontier of settlement up the Mohawk to German Flats. His bill for that purpose passed both Houses of Congress, but was vetoed by President Jackson, who, in his annual message of December, 1832, formally recommended that all public lands should be gratuitously given away to individual adventurers and to the States in which the lands are situated. Particularism was strongest in colonies with no Indian frontier. 3. an undeveloped field of study; a topic inviting research and development. From the conditions of frontier life came intellectual traits of profound importance. Railroads, fostered by land grants, sent an increasing tide of immigrants into the far West. Daniel Boone, the great backwoodsman, who combined the occupations of hunter, trader, cattle-raiser, farmer, and surveyor—learning, probably from the traders, of the fertility of the lands on the upper Yadkin, where the traders were wont to rest as they took their way to the Indians, left his Pennsylvania home with his father, and passed down the Great Valley road to that stream.  But the West was not content with bringing the farm to the factory. Year by year the farmers who lived on soil whose returns were diminished by unrotated crops were offered the virgin soil of the frontier at nominal prices. The United States Army fought a series of Indian wars in Minnesota, Dakota, and the Indian Territory. His grandson, Col. A. J. Boone, of Colorado, was a power among the Indians of the Rocky Mountains, and was appointed an agent by the Government. 1 Life in the Frontier The term frontier nurse practitioner (NP) is based on the notion of place as central to practice; that place is the frontier.  Each frontier has made similar contributions to American character, as will be discussed farther on. French colonization was dominated by its trading frontier; English colonization by its farming frontier. All Rights Reserved Mr. Clay, by his tariff compromise with Mr. Calhoun, abandoned his own American system. With the discovery of gold or silver, prospectors rushed into an area to stake their claims, and small mining camps turned into boomtowns overnight, complete with dance halls, saloons, prostitutes, and astronomical prices for food and equipment. The jealousy and the fears of the East were powerless in the face of the demands of the frontiersmen. He stressed the process—the moving frontier line—and the impact it … The rise of democracy as an effective force in the nation came in with western preponderance under Jackson and William Henry Harrison, and it meant the triumph of the frontier—with all of its good and with all of its evil elements. In this progress from savage conditions lie topics for the evolutionist.. 43. The Great Plains, stretching from west of the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains, were a passage to be crossed, not land to be settled. ; [Mitchell] Contest in America, etc. If one would understand why we are to-day one nation, rather than a collection of isolated states, he must study this economic and social consolidation of the country. When you are talking about the western part of America before the twentieth century, you use frontier to refer to the area beyond the part settled by Europeans....a far-flung outpost on the … It produces antipathy to control, and particularly to any direct control. 46. 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This paper will make no attempt to treat the subject exhaustively; its aim is simply to call attention to the frontier as a fertile field for investigation, and to suggest some of the problems which arise in connection with it. But the purchase of Louisiana was called out by frontier needs and demands. In the Virginia convention of 1829–30, called to revise the constitution, Mr. Leigh, of Chesterfield, one of the tide-water counties, declared: One of the main causes of discontent which led to this convention, that which had the strongest influence in overcoming our veneration for the work of our fathers, which taught us to contemn the sentiments of Henry and Mason and Pendleton, which weaned us from our reverence for the constituted authorities of the State, was an overweening passion for internal improvement. 37. Burke and other writers in the middle of the eighteenth century believed that Pennsylvania was “threatened with the danger of being wholly foreign in language, manners, and perhaps even inclinations.” The German and Scotch-Irish elements in the frontier of the South were only less great. Cowboys tended the herds while they were grazing, branded them when they were of age, fought off cattle thieves, and managed the long drives of thousands of cattle over hundreds of miles of open prairie to the railroads. I have refrained from dwelling on the lawless characteristics of the frontier, because they are sufficiently well known. Mobility of population is death to localism, and the western frontier worked irresistibly in unsettling population. Compare Barrows, United States of Yesterday and To-morrow; Shinn, Mining Camps; and Bancroft, Popular Tribunals. / frʌnˈtɪər / a border between two countries, or (esp. As frontier States accrued to the Union the national power grew. At the same time he brought forward a plan for distributing among all the States of the Union the proceeds of the sales of the public lands. In order to survive, the entire family needed to work. By definition, the American frontier meant the vast unclaimed land west of white civilization. The system was replaced by the telegraph. The fall line marked the frontier of the seventeenth century; the Alleghanies that of the eighteenth; the Mississippi that of the first quarter of the nineteenth; the Missouri that of the middle of this century (omitting the California movement); and the belt of the Rocky Mountains and the arid tract, the present frontier. Under the lead of Clay—“Harry of the West”—protective tariffs were passed, with the cry of bringing the factory to the farm. You cannot station garrisons in every part of these deserts. A representative from western Virginia declared: But, sir, it is not the increase of population in the West which this gentleman ought to fear. And to study this advance, the men who grew up under these conditions, and the political, economic, and social results of it, is to study the really American part of our history. In a recent bulletin of the Superintendent of the Census for 1890 appear these significant words: “Up to and including 1880 the country had a frontier of settlement, but at present the unsettled area has been so broken into by isolated bodies of settlement that there can hardly be said to be a frontier line. The purchase of Louisiana was perhaps the constitutional turning point in the history of the Republic, inasmuch as it afforded both a new area for national legislation and the occasion of the downfall of the policy of strict construction. Plea for the West (Cincinnati, 1835), pp. In part this is due to Indian resistance, in part to the location of river valleys and passes, in part to the unequal force of the centers of frontier attraction. Wis. Hist. Having now roughly outlined the various kinds of frontiers, and their modes of advance, chiefly from the point of view of the frontier itself, we may next inquire what were the influences on the East and on the Old World. Prof. Osgood, in an able article, has pointed out that the frontier conditions prevalent in the colonies are important factors in the explanation of the American Revolution, where individual liberty was sometimes confused with absence of all effective government. Line by line as we read this continental page from west to east we find the record of social evolution. Stand at Cumberland Gap and watch the procession of civilization, marching single file—the buffalo following the trail to the salt springs, the Indian, the fur-trader and hunter, the cattle-raiser, the pioneer farmer—and the frontier has passed by. Debates in the Constitutional Convention, 1829–1830. Thus each one of the periods of lax financial integrity coincides with periods when a new set of frontier communities had arisen, and coincides in area with these successive frontiers, for the most part. Said Duquesne to the Iroquois, “Are you ignorant of the difference between the king of England and the king of France? 4. Compare Roosevelt, Thomas Benton, ch. Go see the forts that our king has established and you will see that you can still hunt under their very walls. It has frequently been asked how such a people could have developed that strained nervous energy now characteristic of them. While Europeans made their fortunes and reputations in far-off Africa and Asia, U.S. citizens pursued the work and adventure of subduing their country's last frontier. Much more than its earlier pioneering drives, the settlement of the frontier was more frankly driven by the profit motive, more centrally directed by a successful partnership between central government and private enterprise, and inspired by the ideology of Manifest Destiny. Why was it that the Indian trader passed so rapidly across the continent? Proud of its separation and isolation from Europe, it was not a party to the competition for foreign colonies. The Plymouth pilgrims settled in Indian cornfields, and their first return cargo was of beaver and lumber. The miners and prospectors went west to find gold.  This page is familiar to the student of census statistics, but how little of it has been used by our historians. In less than 300 years, civilization spread across a vast continental wilderness. They are regenerated, politically I mean, sir. The records of the various New England colonies show how steadily exploration was carried into the wilderness by this trade. 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